s̲-ᔆ-s̪-PREFIXperfective affirmative

This conjunct prefix is the marker of one of the major types of perfective affirmative. It immediately precedes the inner subject marker. Here is a typical paradigm: \smallskip \centerlineShoot [PA] \smallskip \centerline\vbox\ninepoint\tabskip=0pt \offinterlineskip \def\tbrule\noalign\hrule \halign to \parwid\strut#& \vrule#\tabskip=\partbskip plus2em& #\hfil & \vrule# & #\hfil & \vrule# & #\hfil & \vrule# & #\hfil & \vrule#\tabskip=0pt\cr\tbrule &&\omit && \hfil singular && \hfil dual && \hfil plural&\cr\tbrule &&1 && s̲usch'i && s̲iduch'i && ts'uz̲ch'i &\cr\tbrule &&2 && s̲inch'i && s̲ahch'i && s̲ahch'i &\cr\tbrule &&3 && s̲uch'i && huz̲ch'i && huz̲ch'i &\cr\tbrule \hipuc Notice that it has the allomorph z̲ in the first person plural and third person duo-plural. This is because the first person plural subject marker \itts' and the third person duo-plural subject marker h are conjunct prefixes. The allomorph appears in other person/number combinations as well if it is preceded by a conjunct prefix. For example, ‟I shot you (1)” is nyuz̲usch'i. The allomorph is triggered only by a preceding conjunct prefix, not by disjunct prefixes. Notice how the disjunct prefix n= ‟in a loop” does not induce . \smallskip \centerlineGo in a Loop by Boat [PA] \smallskip \centerline\vbox\ninepoint\tabskip=0pt \offinterlineskip \def\tbrule\noalign\hrule \halign to \parwid\strut#& \vrule#\tabskip=\partbskip plus2em& #\hfil & \vrule# & #\hfil & \vrule# & #\hfil & \vrule# & #\hfil & \vrule#\tabskip=0pt\cr\tbrule &&\omit && \hfil singular && \hfil dual && \hfil plural&\cr\tbrule &&1 && nus̲uskui && nus̲idukui && nuts'uz̲kui &\cr\tbrule &&2 && nus̲inkui && nus̲ahkui && nus̲ahkui &\cr\tbrule &&3 && nus̲ukui && nuhuz̲kui && nuhuz̲kui &\cr\tbrule \hipuc The change of s̲ to z̲ after a conjunct prefix does not take place if it immediately precedes the d valence prefix. Compare the paradigm of ‟shoot” above with the corresponding reflexive paradigm. \smallskip \centerlineShoot Self [PA] \smallskip \centerline\vbox\eightpoint\tabskip=0pt \offinterlineskip \def\tbrule\noalign\hrule \halign to \parwid\strut#& \vrule#\tabskip=\partbskip plus2em& #\hfil & \vrule# & #\hfil & \vrule# & #\hfil & \vrule# & #\hfil & \vrule#\tabskip=0pt\cr\tbrule &&\omit && \hfil singular && \hfil dual && \hfil plural&\cr\tbrule &&1 && na'duz̲usduch'i && na'duz̲iduch'i && na'ts'udus̲duch'i &\cr\tbrule &&2 && na'duz̲induch'i && na'duz̲ahduch'i && na'duz̲ahduch'i &\cr\tbrule &&3 && na'dudus̲duch'i && na'dodus̲duch'i && na'dodus̲duch'i &\cr\tbrule \hipuc This prefix combines with the l valence prefix to form lh, e.g. nulhgaih ‟he ran in a loop”. It combines with the lh valence prefix to form lh, e.g. yulht'e ‟he roasted it”.

Related Words:   Affixes

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