Bibliography of Materials on
Carrier Culture and History

This bibliography is intended as a convenience to people looking for information. By listing an item here, neither the Yinka Dene Language Institute nor the Carrier-Sekani Tribal Council intends to endorse its accuracy or the views expressed by the author.

Aasen, Wendy Katherine Grace (1992)
Should the Clans Decide? The Problems of Modelling Self-Government Among the Carrier-Sekani Indians of British Columbia. MA thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta.
Birchwater, Sage (1991)
'Ulkatchot'en: The People of Ulkatcho. Anahim Lake: Ulkatcho Indian Band. Illustrated by Ronald Cahoose.
Birchwater, Sage (1991)
Ulkatcho: Stories of the Grease Trail Anahim Lake: Ulkatcho Indian Band. Illustrated by Ronald Cahoose.
Bond, Laurel and Sandra Russell (1992)
The Carrier of Long Ago. Prince George, BC: School District 57. 96 pp.
Boyd, Laura M. (1989)
My Home Forever. Quesnel: Nazko Indian Band. Illustrated by the author and Maggie Ferguson-Dumais.
A description of life today in Nazko, with many illustrations. Suitable for older children. 47 pp.
Boyd, Laura M. (1990)
For Someone Special. Quesnel: Nazko Indian Band. Illustrated by the author.
A story suitable for primary school children about the preparations for the birth of a new baby. An appendix explains, with the aid of photographs, how to make a traditional cradle. In English, with a few Carrier words, which are explained. 44 pp.
Brown, Doug (2002)
"Carrier Sekani Self-Government in Context: Land and Resources," Western Geography 12:21-67. Download the PDF file.
Carrière, Gaston (1972)
"Adrien-Gabriel Morice, o.m.i. (1859-1938) Essai de bibliographie," Revue de l'université d'Ottawa 42.325-341.
A detailed bibliography of the works of Father Adrien-Gabriel Morice, the oblate priest who was stationed at Fort Saint James from 1885 until 1904.
Cauthers, Janet (1984)
"Some reflections on the lives of Native people in British Columbia," Sound Heritage iv.3-4.12-38.
Christensen, Bev (1995)
Too Good to be True. Vancouver: Talonbooks.
A history of the Kemano project, which flooded much of Cheslatta traditional territory and has had a significant impact on many other Carrier people.
Coccola, Father Nicola (1988)
They Call Me Father: Memoirs of Father Nicola Coccola. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Edited by Margaret Whitehead.
The memoirs of a priest who served for many years in Carrier territory, including a long stint as Director of Lejac Residential School.
College of New Caledonia (1999)
Carrier Cultural Curriculum Guide. Burns Lake, BC.
An instructor's manual for the Early Childhood Education Program. Prepared by the Lakes District Campus of the College of New Caledonia in consultation with the Lake Babine Nation Advisory ECE Curriculum Committee. Available from the Centre for Curriculum, Transfer, and Technology, 1483 Douglas Street, Victoria, BC V8W 3K4. Tel: 250-413-4402. FAX: 250-413-4469. curriculum@ctt.bc.ca.
Cranny, Michael (1986)
Carrier Settlement and Subsistence in the Chinlac/Cluculz Lake Area of Central British Columbia. Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia.
Crocker, Evelyn Laurell (2005)
Strength and resiliency in the narratives of Margaret Gagnon. M.A. thesis, University of Northern British Columbia.
David, Clark (1977)
"Some Notes on Plateau Athapaskans," Proceedings of the Northern Athapaskan Conference (Ottawa). 27.620-629. National Museum of Man. Mercury Series. Canadian Ethnology Service paper.
Donahue, Paul (1975)
"Concerning Athapaskan Prehistory in British Columbia," Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology 5.3-4.21-63.
Fiske, Jo-Anne (19xx)
"Carrier Women and the Politics of Mothering," in Gillian Creese and Veronica Strong-Boag (eds.) British Columbia Reconsidered, Vancouver: Press Gang Publishers, pp.198-216.
Reprinted 2002 in Veronica Strong-Boag, Mona Gleason, and Adele Perry (eds.) Rethinking Canada - The Promise of Women's History. Oxford University Press Canada, pp. 359-374.
Fiske, Jo-Anne (1981)
"And Then We Prayed Again": Carrier Women, Colonization, and Mission Schools. MA. Thesis, University of British Columbia.
Fiske, Jo-Anne (1987)
"Fishing is Women's Business: Changing Economic Roles of Carrier Women and Men," in Bruce Aldan Cox (ed.) Native People, Native Lands Ottawa: Carleton University Press pp. 186-198.
Fiske, Jo-Anne (1989)
Gender and Politics in a Carrier Indian Community Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia.
Fiske, Jo-Anne (1991)
"Native Women in Reserve Politics Strategies and Struggles," Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 30-31.121-137
Fiske, Jo-Anne and Betty Patrick (2000)
Cis dideen kat (When the Plumes Rise): The Way of the Lake Babine Nation. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
A description of the potlatch system, the traditional legal system of the Lake Babine Nation. Jo-Anne Fiske is an anthropologist. Betty Patrick is Chief of the Lake Babine Nation.
Furniss, Elizabeth (1986)
"The Carrier Indians and the Politics of History," in R. Bruce Morrison and C. Roderick Wilson (eds.) Native Peoples: The Canadian Experience. 2nd edition. Toronto: McLelland and Stewart. pp. 508-546.
Furniss, Elizabeth (1993)
Dakelh Keyoh: The Southern Carrier in Earlier Times. Quesnel: Quesnel School District.
A description of the traditional life of Carrier people in the Blackwater region. Many photographs and illustrations. Appropriate for use in secondary schools. Written by historian Elizabeth Furniss with extensive consultation with Carrier people. Published by the Quesnel School District (#28) at Quesnel, B.C. 87 pages. Softcover. ©1993 by the Kluskus, Nazko, Red Bluff and Ulkatcho Indian Bands.
Furniss, Elizabeth (1993)
Changing Ways: Southern Carrier History 1793-1940. Quesnel: Quesnel School District.
A history of Carrier people in the Blackwater region. Many photographs and illustrations. Appropriate for use in secondary schools. Written by historian Elizabeth Furniss with extensive consultation with Carrier people. ©1993 by the Kluskus, Nazko, Red Bluff and Ulkatcho Indian Bands.
Giesbrecht, Jean Clark (1994)
Heritage Lost: A People's History of the Ootsa Lake Region 1905-1955. Likely, BC: Quesnel Lake Publishing.
This is devoted primarily to the white settlers in this portion of Cheslatta Carrier territory, but contains a chapter on native people as well as an account of the flooding caused by the construction of the Kemano Project.
Goldman, Irving (1940)
"The Alkatcho Carrier of British Columbia," in Linton, Ralph (ed.) Acculturation in Seven American Indian Tribes New York: Appleton-Century pp. 333-389
Goldman, Irving (1943)
"The Alkatcho Carrier: Historical Background of Crest Prerogatives," American Anthropologist 41.396-421.
Hall, Lizette (1992)
The Carrier, My People. Published at Quesnel, British Columbia by the author. Reprinted in paperback, 2000.
Harmon, Daniel Williams
A Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interior of North America. Edited by Daniel Haskel in 1820. Allerton Book Company, New York. 1922. ©1905.
The journal of an officer in the Northwest Company who was in Carrier territory from 1809-1819.
Hebda, Richard, Nancy J. Turner, Sage Birchwater, Michèle Kay, and the Ulkatcho Elders (1996)
Ulkatcho Food and Medicine Plants Anahim Lake: Ulkatcho Indian Band.
Information on plants used for food and medicine, including names in the Lhk'acho dialect. The plants are identified by their scientific names.
Heikkila, Karen Ann (2007)
Teaching Through Toponymy: Using Indigenous Place-names in Outdoor Science Camps. M.A. thesis, Department of Geography, University of Northern British Columbia.
Hudson, Douglas R. (1983)
Traplines and Timber: Social and Economic Change among the Carrier Indians of British Columbia. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Jacks, Terry (2000)
The Warmth of Love: the Four Seasons of Sophie Thomas. VHS video, 33:33 minutes. Sophie Thomas Foundation.
Describes the use of traditional herbal medicine by Saik'uz elder Sophie Thomas. See the description in the North Shore News. Call 1-800-667-7718 to purchase.
Jenness, Diamond (1934)
"Myths of the Carrier Indians of British Columbia," The Journal of American Folk-Lore 47.184-85 (April-September) 97-257.
A collection of Wetsuwet'en myths.
Kew, Mike (1972)
"Notes on Preliminary Ethnographic Fieldwork Among the Southern Carrier Indians," ms. Department of Anthropology, University of British Columbia.
Kobrinsky, Vernon H. (1982)
"On Thinking of Eating Animals Dialectics of Carrier Social Identity Symbols - A Case Study," Dialectical Anthropology 6.337-344.
Lheit-Lit'en Nation (n.d.)
Return to Balhats. Prince George: Lheit-Lit'en Nation.
A 15 page booklet describing the history of the Lheidli T'enneh, their system of self-government, and economic development programme. Contains biographical sketches of elder Margaret Gagnon, former Chief Peter Quaw, counselor Domo Frederick and university student Jacqui Gouchie. Undated but published around 1994.
Mack, Clayton (1993)
Grizzlies and White Guys: The Stories of Clayton Mack. Compiled and edited by Harvey Thommasen. Vancouver: Harbour Publishing.
A collection of reminiscences by the late Nuxalk (Bella Coola) elder Clayton Mack (1910-1993). Like other Nuxalk people, Mr. Mack had close ties to Ulkatcho Carrier people, so many of his memories are relevant to Carrier history as well.
Mack, Clayton (1994)
Bella Coola Man: More Stories of Clayton Mack. Compiled and edited by Harvey Thommasen. Vancouver: Harbour Publishing.
A collection of reminiscences by the late Nuxalk (Bella Coola) elder Clayton Mack (1910-1993). Like other Nuxalk people, Mr. Mack had close ties to Ulkatcho Carrier people, so many of his memories are relevant to Carrier history as well.
Mackenzie, Alexander (1801/1962)
Journal of the Voyage to the Pacific. Walter Sheppe, ed. Berkeley: University of California Press. Reprinted 1995 at New York by Dover.
The journal of the leader of the Northwest Company explorers who in 1793 were the first known Europeans to pass through Carrier territory.
Maud, Ralph (1982)
A Guide to British Columbia Indian Myths and Legends. Vancouver: Talonbooks.
Contains a discussion of the stories recorded by Father Morice.
Mitchell, Rennel
Treasures of the Carrier people : an introduction to Carrier material culture and research findings on the Parks Canada Athapaskan collection. Prince George, B.C.: Fraser-Fort George Regional Museum. 107 pp.
Abstract: "This report is a comprehensive overview of Carrier material culture, and attempts to fill in the large gap left by the minimal coverage of Carrier material in the broader Athapaskan context. This presentation of Carrier material is based on a database of over 800 items compiled from three primary sources: archival sources, major museum collections, and from interviews with Carrier Elders conducted during the course of this research. The items in the database cover the time period from the mid-nineteenth century, just a few decades after first contact in the region, up to the present-day. The material represents every facet of Carrier cultural life, from the practical, such as clothing, hunting and fishing technology, and everyday household items, to the ceremonial, such as Chief and shaman regalia and other significant ritual objects."

Moran, Bridget (1988)
Stoney Creek Woman. Vancouver: Tillacum Library.
A biography of elder Mary John, Sr.
Moran, Bridget (1990)
Judgement at Stoney Creek. Vancouver: Tillacum Library.
An account of the death of Coreen Thomas, a young woman from Stoney Creek, who was struck and killed by a vehicle driven by a white man, and the subsequent inquest, trial, and political controversy.
Moran, Bridget (1994)
Justa. Vancouver: Tillacum Library.
A biography of prominent political leader Justa Monk.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1888-1889)
"The Western Denes Their Manners and Customs," Proceedings of the Canadian Institute Toronto.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1892)
"Les Dénés occidentaux," Missions de la Congrégation des Missionaires Oblats de Marie-Immaculée 22.249-327.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1893)
"Are the Carrier Sociology and Mythology Indigenous or Exotic?" Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada for the Year 1892 2.109-126.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1893)
"Notes Archaeological, Industrial, and Sociological on the Western Denes, with an Ethnographic Sketch of the Same," Toronto: Copp, Clark.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1897)
Au Pays de L'ours Noir Chez les Sauvages de la Colombie Britannique. Paris: Delhomme et Briguet.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1904)
History of the Northern Interior of British Columbia. Toronto: William Briggs.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1905)
"The Canadian Dene," Annual Archaeological Report Appendix to Report of the Minister of Education. Toronto.pp. 187-219
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1906)
"The Great Dene Race," Anthropos 1.229-277,483-509,695-730.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1907)
"La femme chez les Dénés," Mémoires et Délibérations du XV-ieme Congrès des Américanistes tenu à Québec du 10 au 15 septembre 1906 1.361-394. Quebec: Dussault & Proulx.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1907)
"The Great Dene Race," Anthropos 2.1-34,181-196.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1909)
"The Great Dene Race," Anthropos 4.582-606.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1910)
"The Great Dene Race," Anthropos 5.113-142,419-443, 643-653,969-990.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1928)
"Les Dénés du Nord" Bulletin de la Société de Géographie de Québec 22.146-190.
Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1928)
"The Fur-Trader in Anthropology; and a Few Related Questions" American Anthropologist n.s. 30.60-84.
Mulhall, David (1986)
Will to Power: The Missionary Career of Father Morice. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Munro, J. B. (1945)
Language, Legends, and Lore of the Carrier Indians. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Ottawa.
Based heavily on the work of Father Morice. Of little independent interest.
Poirier, Mary Ann and Anita Louie (1990)
Carrier-Sekani Hereditary Chiefs, Elders, Active Members and Balhats Seating Plan. Prince George: Self-Government Department, Carrier-Sekani Tribal Council.
Richardson, Boyce (1993)
People of Terra Nullius. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre.
Contains a discussion of the reasons for the separation of Lheidli T'enneh from the Carrier-Sekani Tribal Council.
Ritch-Krc, Elizabeth Maud
A Selection of Traditional Medicine Remedies Important to Contemporary Carrier People in their Treatment of Disease. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia.
Robertson, Mike (2009)
"The Cheslatta Carrier Nation: Then and Now" in Nyan Whut'en Hubughunek (Cheslatta Carrier Dictionary). Burns Lake, BC: Cheslatta Carrier Nation. pp. 3-21.
Rosetti, Bernadette (1979)
Kw'eh Ts'u Haindene. Descendents of Kwah - a Carrier Indian genealogy. Fort Saint James: Carrier Linguistic Committee and Necoslie Indian Band.
Runnals, Reverend Francis Edwin (1946)
A History of Prince George. Prince George: the author.
Here and there contains information relevant to Carrier history, such as an account of the coming of the railroad.
Sam, Lillian [editor] (2001)
Nak'azdli Elders Speak. Nak'azdli t'enne yahulduk. Penticton: Theytus Books. ISBN 0-919441-95-5.
Oral history recorded by Nak'azdli (Fort Saint James) elders. In English translation.
Sedgwick, J. Kent (2012)
Lheidli T'enneh Cemetery, Prince George: a documented history. Prince George: College of New Caledonia Press. 70pp, with numerous illustrations. ISBN 978-0-92108762-5
A history of the Lheidli T'enneh Cemetery in what is now Fort George Park. Includes a section (pp. 57-68) by William J. Poser on the surviving headstones, with transcription and translation of the Carrier syllabic inscriptions.
Steward, Julian (1961)
"Carrier acculturation: the direct historical approach," in Stanley Diamond (ed.) Culture in History: Essays in Honour of Paul Rabin. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 732-744.
Tanis, Alta (1996)
God's Warrior: The Life Story of Ray Prince. Winnipeg: Indian Life Books.
A biography of the late Nak'azdli elder Raymond Prince by an evangelical missionary, with emphasis on his religious life.
Tobey, Margaret L. (1981)
"Carrier" in June Helm (ed.) Handbook of North American Indians: Volume 6. Subarctic (Washington: Smithsonian Institution) pp. 413-432.
Young, Jane and Alex Hawley (2002)
Plants and Medicines of Sophie Thomas: Based on the Traditional Knowledge of Sophie Thomas, Sai'kuz Elder and Healer. © Sophie Thomas.
Describes the medicinal use of 22 plants. Each plant is identified by its Carrier name, English common name, and scientific name and is illustrated by one or more colour photographs. Aspects of the collection and preparation are described and illustrated. iv+71pp, index.

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