Carrier Linguistics Bibliography

Anonymous (2000)
The Carrier Language
A pamphlet describing the Carrier language. Contains information about where the language is spoken, its dialects and relationships to other languages, the writing systems used, and the grammar of the language. Intended to be understandable by the general public, it should be useful for classes in First Nations Studies, anthropology, social studies, and so forth. Yinka Dene Language Institute
Antoine, Francesca, Bird, Catherine, Isaac, Agnes, Prince, Nellie, Sam, Sally, Walker, Richard, and David B. Wilkinson (1974)
Central Carrier Bilingual Dictionary. Fort Saint James, British Columbia: Carrier Linguistic Committee.
Carrier-English dictionary with English index, containing about 3000 entries. Accompanied by a brief grammatical sketch by Richard Walker and an appendix on kinship terminology by Shirley Walker. Available from YDLI.
Antoine, Irene, Bird, Catherine, Heer, Ileen, Martin, Mildred, and Florence Sam (1991)
Nak'al Bun Whudakelhne Bughuni. Vanderhoof, B.C.: Yinka Dene Language Institute.
Carrier-English dictionary for use in primary school classes, containing about 300 entries. Contains items not found in 1974 CLC dictionary and often uses different example sentences. Available from YDLI.
Bird, Sonya (2002)
The Phonetics and Phonology of Lheidli Intervocalic Consonants. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, Department of Linguistics, University of Arizona.
Author's abstract:

This dissertation explores the phonetics and phonology of intervocalic consonants in Lheidli, a dialect of Dakelh (Carrier) Athapaskan spoken in the interior of British Columbia. Through a series of studies on Lheidli, I show quantitatively what has previously been noted impressionistically in the Athapaskan literature: intervocalic consonants are remarkably long.

The implication of these consonants for the structure of Lheidli is approached from two perspectives. First, I investigate their role from a purely phonetic approach, focusing on their effect on the perceived rhythmic structure of Lheidli. I propose a new model of rhythm, the Enhancement/Inhibition model, in which the perception of rhythm is created by the interplay between primary and secondary correlates of rhythm. Within the proposed model, the Lheidli data show that one of the important secondary correlates is inherent segmental duration, an element that has not yet been considered in the literature.

Second, I investigate the role of intervocalic consonants from a phonological approach, focusing on their effect on syllabification. I present the results of a series of studies on the distribution of vowel duration and quality, the distribution of consonant duration, native speaker syllabification intuitions, and the interaction between stress placement and intervocalic consonant duration. Together these studies lead me to analyze Lheidli intervocalic consonants as non-contrastive, moraic geminates.

I conclude by discussing the implications of the Lheidli data for phonetic and phonological theory. I argue the duration of intervocalic consonants is encoded in the Lheidli grammar as part of the language-specific phonetics. Furthermore, because this duration interacts with syllabification, it is encoded in the phonology as weight. Although in Lheidli the phonetic duration of intervocalic consonants is encoded in the phonology as well as the grammar, I propose that not all language-specific phonetic properties are specified in the grammar. This is the case for rhythm, for example, which is an effect of other phonetic and phonological factors of the language rather than being a linguistic primitive itself.

Bird, Sonya (2004)
"Lheidli intervocalic consonants: Phonetic and morphological effects". Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34.1.69-91.
Carrier Linguistic Committee (1974)
Central Carrier Country. Fort Saint James: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
A booklet consisting of maps of the area near Stuart Lake, primarily to the North and East, labelled with Carrier names. Available from YDLI.
Compton, Brian (1991)
Carrier-Sekani Botanical Terminology. ms. Department of Botany, University of British Columbia.
List of plants organized by scientific classification, with Carrier names and in some cases uses. Data is taken both from published sources and from Compton's work with a number of speakers.
Cook, Eung-Do (1976)
A Phonological Study of Chilcotin and Carrier. Report to the National Museum on Contract No. E10-75-8. Part II: Central Carrier Phonology.
A discussion of miscellaneous issues in the phonology of Stuart/Trembleur Lake dialect Carrier, mostly of an allophonic nature.
Cook, Eung-Do (1977)
``Syllable Weight in Three Northern Athapaskan Languages,'' International Journal of American Linguistics 43.4.259-268.
Discusses Sarcee, Chilcotin, and Central Carrier.
Cook, Eung-Do (1985)
``Carrier nasals,'' International Journal of American Linguistics 51.377-379.
A brief discussion of the status of the velar and palatal nasals.
Dawson, George Mercer and W. Fraser Tolmie (1884)
Comparative Vocabularies of the Indian Tribes of British Columbia. Montréal: Dawson Brothers.
Vocabulary collected by Dawson in 1875 in the Blackwater and near Fort George is given under the heading ``Takulli'' on pp. 63-77. The dialect represented appears to be that of Lheidli. The quality of the recording is not very good. Ejectives are not noted, and the voiced velar fricative is not distinguished from the cognate stop.
Fell, Barry (1977/1992)
``Takhelne, a Celtiberian language of North America,'' Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers 21.193-239.
In this paper Fell claims, on dubious grounds, that Carrier is not Athabaskan but is a Celtic language. See Is Carrier Celtic? for further discussion. (This was first published in 1977 in volume 4 and reprinted in 1992.)
Fell, Barry (1979)
``Takelhne, a North American Celtic Language. part 2,'' Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers 7.140.21-42.
A sequel to Fell (1977)
Fell, Barry (1983)
Saga America. New York: Times Books. 2nd edition.
On pp. 270-276 Fell presents drawings of pictographs from the Fraser Valley, which, he claims, contain Carrier words written in Ogham script. See Is Carrier Celtic? for further discussion.
Gessner, Suzanne C. (2002)
"Prosody in Dakelh: a Comparison of Two Dialects". Proceedings of the Athabaskan Languages Conference. Available from the Alaska Native Language Center.
Compares the prosody of the Nak'albun/Dzinghubun (Stuart/Trembleur Lake) dialect as previously described in the literature with that of Lheidli dialect.
Gessner, Suzanne C. (2003)
The Prosodic System of the Dakelh (Carrier) Language. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Linguistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.
A phonetic and phonological study of tone and stress in Lheidli dialect, with comparison to the Stuart/Trembleur Lake dialect.
Hale, Horatio (1846)
United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842 Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. VI. Ethnography and Philology. Philadelphia: C. Sherman.
On pp. 570-629 contains 103 words provided by A. Anderson of the Hudson's Bay Company, who had been factor at Fort Fraser. The language is referred to as ``Tahkali''. Hale explains his transcription at pp ix-xii.
Harmon, Daniel Williams (1820)
A Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interior of North America. Edited by Daniel Haskel in 1820. Allerton Book Company, New York. 1922. Copyrighted 1905.
The journal begins on April 29, 1800 and ends on August 1819. Harmon arrived at Fort Saint James on 1810/11/7 but soon moved on to Fraser Lake, where he arrived on 1810/12/29. He returned to Fort Saint James on 1811/4/5. In 1812 he visited the Babine. He also visited the Fraser Lake area. On 1814/11/3 he moved to the post at Fraser Lake. In 1815 he visited Nazko briefly. On 1817/9/1 he returned from a trip to Fort Chippewyan and took up residence at Fort Saint James. At the end of February or beginning of March 1819 he left Fort Saint James for McLeod Lake, and on 1819/5/8 he left for Canada. This volume actually contains three parts: the journal proper, and two appendices, one on ``the Indians East of the Rocky Mountains'', the other on ``the Indians West of the Rocky Mountains''. Most of the Carrier language material is in the latter appendix, in a list of vocabulary on pp. 353-364. There are a few Carrier words in the journal proper, for a total of 313 forms. As might be expected from his residence both at Fort Saint James and at Fort Fraser, the vocabulary recorded reflects a mixture of the Stuart Lake and Nadleh dialects.
Harrington, John Peabody (1939)
Field notes from three weeks spent in Fort Saint James in 1939 during which he worked with John Prince. The original notes are in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. They are to be found on reels 013 and 014 of the microfilm edition of Harrington's notes available from Norman Ross Publications.

Hebda, Richard, Nancy J. Turner, Sage Birchwater, Mich\`ele Kay, and the Ulkatcho Elders (1996)
Ulkatcho Food and Medicine Plants. Anahim Lake: Ulkatcho Indian Band.
Information on plants used for food and medicine, including names in the Lhk'acho dialect. The plants are identified by their scientific names.

John, Gracie and Mary John, Jr. (1991)
Saik'uz Whut'enne Hubughunek. Vanderhoof: Yinka Dene Language Institute and Carrier Linguistic Committee.
Carrier-English dictionary for use in primary school classes, containing 441 entries. Available from YDLI.

Kari, James (1975)
``Babine, a New Athabaskan Linguistic Grouping,'' ms. Alaska Native Language Center, Fairbanks, Alaska.
Argues that the Babine dialects should be treated as a distinct language, not as dialects of Carrier.

Kari, James and Sharon Hargus (1989)
``Dialectology, Ethnonymy and Prehistory in the Northwest Portion of the `Carrier' Language Area,'' ms. Alaska Native Language Center, Fairbanks, Alaska, and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Contains evidence against the treatment of Babine and Witsuwit'en as dialects of Carrier.

Kew, Michael (1973)
``Notes on Preliminary Ethnographic Fieldwork Among the Southern Carrier Indians. 1972'' Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of British Columbia.
Unpublished manuscript describing fieldwork focussed on Nazko, with some material from Kluskus and Red Bluff. Although more ethnographic than linguistic in orientation, it contains a considerable amount of information on place names and kinship terms. No attempt was made to obtain grammatical information. There are some errors in transcription. Contains a lexicostatistical comparison of Nazko Carrier, Central (Fort Saint James) Carrier, and Chilcotin. The judgements of cognation are, however, ad hoc.

McDonough, Joyce (1989)
``Tone and Accent in Carrier,'' University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 4.51-65.
A theoretical discussion of pitch-accent in the Stuart/Trembleur Lake dialect based entirely on the data published by Pike and Storey.

Mackenzie, Alexander (1801)
Voyages from Montreal on the River St. Laurence, through the Continent of North America to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans: In the Years 1789 and 1793. London. [Edited by Milo Milton Quaife and reissued at Chicago by the Lakeside Press, 1931.]
This is the journal of Alexander Mackenzie, who passed through the Blackwater on the Grease Trail on the way to Bella Coola in 1793. On pp. 188-189 he gives a vocabulary of 25 Carrier words. This is the earliest known recording of the language.

Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1890)
``The New, Methodical, Easy and Complete Déné Syllabary,'' Stuart's Lake Mission: the author. 3 pp.
A brief exposition of the Carrier syllabics, with phonetic values given in terms of the idiosyncratic phonetic transcription he used in his scholarly works.

Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1891)
``The Déné Languages,'' Transactions of the Canadian Institute 1.170-212.
Devoted largely to Carrier.

Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1902)
``The Déné Syllabary and its Advantages,'' in A First Collection of Minor Essays, Mostly Anthropological. Stuart's Lake Mission: the author. pp.65-74.
A discussion of the Carrier syllabics by their creator.

Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1932)
The Carrier Language. Mödling bei Wien, St. Gabriel, Austria: Verlag der Internationalen Zeitschrift ``Anthropos''.
A massive description of the Stuart/Trembleur Lake dialect by a priest resident in Fort Saint James for 19 years. Although the work contains a great deal of vocabulary, it is not really organized as a dictionary. Reviewed (in German) by C. C. Uhlenbeck in Anthropos 27.973-77 (1932).

Morice, Adrien-Gabriel (1933)
``Carrier Onomatology,'' American Anthropologist n.s.35.632-658.
Describes and analyzes personal and place names.

Munro, J. B. (1945)
Language, Legends, and Lore of the Carrier Indians. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Ottawa.
Based almost entirely on the work of Father Morice. Contains some Carrier vocabulary copied from Morice. Of no independent interest other than for some photographs of syllabic texts.

Nater, Hank F. (1991)
"The Athabaskan Component of Nuxalk," International Conference on Salishan and Neighboring Languages 28.301-316.
A discussion of possible borrowings from Athabaskan languages into Nuxalk at various stages. According to Nater, some go back to Pre-Proto-Athabaskan. A number of possible loans from Carrier into Nuxalk are discussed.

Pike, Eunice V. (1986)
``Tone Contrasts in Central Carrier (Athapaskan),'' International Journal of American Linguistics 52.4.411-418.
A discussion of the tonal system of the Stuart/Trembleur Lake dialect, which is argued to be a pitch accent system similar to that of Japanese. A rather complex set of dependencies on neighbouring consonants is described. These will be recognized as segmental perturbations of fundamental frequency that are normally undetected or abstracted away from in impressionistic descriptions; the tone pattern of the language is therefore not nearly as exotic as it might at first seem.

Poser, William J. (1994)
``The Latin Hymns in the Carrier Prayer Book,'' ms. of paper presented at the Athabaskan Languages Conference, Stoney Creek, British Columbia. 16 June 1994.
The Latin hymns in the syllabic version of the Carrier Prayer Book are not simply a syllabic transcription of the Latin, even in a Church Latin pronounciation. They are best explained on the assumption that they reflect the adaptation to the sound system of Carrier of Latin pronounced according to French orthographic conventions.

Poser, William J. (1996)
``Is Carrier Celtic?,'' manuscript.
The text of a talk presented at the Sixth Spring Workshop on Theory and Method in Linguistic Reconstruction, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. 23 March 1996. A critique of the claim by Barry Fell that Carrier is Celtic and not related to the other Athabaskan languages.

Poser, William J. (1997)
``Distribution of Features in Carrier Dialects and Babine,'' manuscript.
A listing of over 50 features distinguishing Carrier dialects and Babine-Witsuwit'en. (The B-W information was provided by Sharon Hargus.) Periodically updated.

Poser, William J. (1997)
``Notes on Carrier Writing Systems,'' manuscript. Downloadable from this site.
A chart, with accompanying notes, comparing the Carrier Linguistic Committee writing system, the roman writing system used by Father Morice in his scholarly writing and in the third edition of the Prayer Book, the related roman system used by elder Nick Prince and some others with phonetic and phonemic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Poser, William J. (1998)
``Restrictions on Co-occurrence of Source and Goal in Carrier'' ms. of paper presented at Winter Meeting, Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas, New York City, 11 January 1998.
A discussion of the fact that in Carrier it is not possible to express the source and goal of motion in the same clause. For example, it is not possible to say, in a single clause ``I drove from Fort Saint James to Vanderhoof.''. Although based on data from the Saik'uz (Stoney Creek) dialect, the phenomenon appears to be true of all dialects.

Poser, William J. (1998)
Nak'albun/Dzinghubun Whut'enne Bughuni (Stuart/Trembleur Lake Carrier Lexicon). Vanderhoof, BC: Yinka Dene Language Institute. Second edition.
Carrier-English/English-Carrier dictionary with over 15,000 Carrier-English entries. Available from YDLI.
Poser, William J. (1998)
Sketch of the Grammar of Carrier.
A draft grammatical sketch of the Nak'albun/Dzinghubun dialect.
Poser, William J. (1998)
``Carrier Syllabics Chart,'' manuscript. Downloadable from this site.
A chart showing the Carrier syllabics with row and column labels in the Carrier Linguistic Committee writing system. This is the same chart as in the paper The Carrier Syllabics but larger and on a page by itself. Two versions are available. One transcribes the syllabics in the Carrier Linguistic Committee writing system. The other uses the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Poser, William J. (1998)
``The Syllabic Gravestones in the Saik'uz Graveyard,'' manuscript.
Transcription and translation of the headstones written in the Carrier language in syllabics, with notes on orthographic practices and identification of the graves.

Poser, William J. (1998)
Saik'uz Whut'en Hubughunek (Stoney Creek Carrier Lexicon). Vanderhoof, BC: Saik'uz First Nation. Third edition. (December 1998)
Carrier-English/English-Carrier dictionary with over 6800 Carrier-English entries. Contains root list, stem lists, affix list, and indices of placenames, scientific names, and loanwords. Available from YDLI.

Poser, William J. (1998)
``The Syllabic Gravestones in the Nadleh Graveyard,'' manuscript.
Transcription and translation of the headstones written in the Carrier language in syllabics, with notes on orthographic practices and identification of the graves.

Poser, William J. (1998)
``The Syllabic Gravestones in the Nak'azdli Graveyard,'' manuscript.
Transcription and translation of the headstones written in the Carrier language in syllabics, with notes on orthographic practices and identification of the graves.

Poser, William J. (1999)
``Particle Scope and Dummy Verbs in Carrier,'' in Marion Caldecott, Suzanne Gessner, and Eun-Sook Kim (eds.) University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics (Proceedings of the Workshop on Structure and Constituency in Languages of the Americas) 2.107-115. Vancouver, British Columbia. Downloadable from this site.
In Carrier, the negative particle 'aw as well as some adverbs has rightward scope. As a result, material within the scope of negation other than the verb must follow 'aw, though topicalized constituents fall within scope even though they precede 'aw. Other scope-bearing elements, including cha ``also'' and za ``only'', have leftward scope. These particles underlie the constructions S za Vaux "to keep on S-ing" and S cha Vaux "to S also", in which the choice of dummy verb Vaux is determined by the event type, valence, and aspect of the main clause. It is suggested that the use of the dummy verb results from the interaction of leftward scope with the requirement that the clause be verb final.

Poser, William J. (1999)
``Carrier Monosyllabic Noun Stems and Culture History,'' manuscript of paper presented at the Symposium in Memory of Arne Carlson and Leslie Mitchell Carlson, Annual Meeting, Canadian Archaeological Association, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory. 1 May, 1999, and at the Athabaskan Languages Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 21 May 1999.
The paper contains a nearly exhaustive list of the known monosyllabic noun stems of the Stuart/Trembleur Lake dialect. After eliminating loans and discussing a few examples of derivation by means of archaic derivational processes, classifies the monosyllabic noun stems by semantic field. In general, as expected, they refer to such things as anatomy, the natural world, and ancient layers of technology. Evidence is presented, however, that Carrier, and Athabaskan more generally, often innovates descriptive terms as replacements for existing terms for items that are culturally old.

Poser, William J. (2001)
Lheidli T'enneh Hubughunek (Fort George Carrier Lexicon). Prince George, BC: Lheidli T'enneh. Third edition. (First edition, December 1997, second edition May 1999.)
Carrier-English/English-Carrier A bilingual dictionary with over 4500 Carrier-English entries. Lheidli T'enneh (Prince George) dialect. Contains: Grammatical Information, Carrier-English, English-Carrier, topical index, alphabetical root list, root list by English gloss, alphabetical stem list, list of stems sorted by root, alphabetical affix list, affix list by English gloss, alphabetical list of placenames, English-Carrier list of placenames, index of scientific names, index of loanwords, appendix with names of months, days of week, and numbers. Verb entries are cross-referenced to the root list. Compiled by Bill Poser. Softcover, spiral bound with laminated cover pages.

Poser, William J. (1999)
Nyan Whut'en Hubughunek (Cheslatta Carrier Lexicon). Burns Lake, BC: Cheslatta Carrier Nation.
Carrier-English/English-Carrier dictionary with over 5600 Carrier-English entries. Contains root list, stem lists, affix list, and indices of placenames, scientific names, and loanwords. Unpublished draft, not yet released.

Poser, William J. (1999)
``Notes on Issues in Writing Carrier,''ms.
A short technical discussion of problematic points in the Carrier Linguistic Committee writing system, including ambiguities, questions of level of representation, and dialect variation.

Poser, William J. (2000)
``D-Effect Related Phenomena in Southern Carrier,'' Paper presented 7 January 2000 at the meeting of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas, Chicago. Downloadable from this site.
In Southern Carrier dialects valence /d/ is not deleted when there is no D-Effect as it is in the Nak'albun/Dzinghbun dialect. Instead, an epenthetic vowel is inserted between the /d/ and the verb stem. No epenthesis takes place after the final /d/ of the first person dual subject marker. Epenthesis after valence /d/ allows us to detect the existence of verb forms in which there are two /d/ valence prefixes. Some verbs, notably "to eat", exhibit stem allomorphy, in which a different stem is used in D-Effect contexts. In Lheidli dialect, however, in the verb "to eat", the context for this allomorphy has become restricted to valence /d/. Finally, all Southern Carrier dialects have a rule of Tl-Softening, whereby the initial /tl/ of a verb stem becomes /lh/ immediately following /lh/. This rule is potentially bled by the D-Effect, since the D-Effect converts /lh/ to /l/. In most dialects, the D-Effect does not bleed Tl-Softening, resulting in opaque derivations. However, the D-Effect does bleed Tl-Softening in Saik'uz dialect. This is an interesting case of dialect difference in rule ordering.

Poser, William J. (2000)
The Carrier Syllabics. Saik'uz: Yinka Dene Language Institute. Technical Report #1. Downloadable from this site.
A brief but detailed exposition of the Carrier syllabic writing system, including characters and orthographic conventions not described by Father Morice for the original version of the system. Two versions of this paper are available. One transcribes Carrier words in the Carrier Linguistic Committee writing system. The other uses the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Poser, William J. (2000)
Saik'uz Whut'en Hubughunek (Stoney Creek Carrier Lexicon). Vanderhoof, BC: Saik'uz First Nation. Fourth edition. (March 2000)
Carrier-English/English-Carrier dictionary with 7600 Carrier-English entries. Contains root list, stem list, list of stems sorted by root, affix list, list of affixes by English gloss and indices of placenames, scientific names, and loanwords. Available from YDLI.

Poser, William J. (2005)
``Noun Classification in Carrier,'' Anthropological Linguistics 47.2.143-168. A prepublication version is downloadable here.
A discussion of the variety of forms of noun classification in the Stuart/Trembleur Lake dialect.
Poser, William John (2008)
"Father Morice's Rendering of Latin in Carrier Syllabics" Northwest Journal of Linguistics 2.4.1-9.
Poser, William John (2009)
The Carrier Language: A Brief Introduction. Prince George: College of New Caledonia Press.
This book provides an overview of the Carrier language - where it is spoken, by whom, and what it is like. It is not a reference grammar or a textbook but rather is intended to acquaint the reader with the general character of the language and with some particularly interesting aspects. It is intended to be accessible to the non-specialist reader: secondary school students, college and university students, those interested in local history and culture, tourists, and language buffs.
Poser, William John (2010)
Introduction to the Carrier Syllabics. Prince George: the author. May be ordered from
Carrier, known to its speakers as Dakelh, is the native language of a large portion of the Central Interior of British Columbia. The Carrier Syllabics was the first writing system used to write Carrier. Although in limited use today, for several decades after its introduction in 1885 it was widely used, and it is experiencing a resurgence today. This book is the first textbook of this interesting writing system. After a systematic introduction, it presents a variety of real texts, including excerpts from the prayerbook, newspaper articles, gravestones, and graffiti. A small vocabulary and several reading passages are also provided for practice. Ancillary material includes an exposition of the differences between the Carrier Syllabics and the historically related but very different Cree Syllabics, an explanation of the Carrier Linguistic Committee writing system, syllabics charts arranged both by shape and alphabetically, and character outlines useful for learning to write the characters.
Prunet, Jean-Francois (1990)
``The Origin and Interpretation of French Loans in Carrier,'' International Journal of American Linguistics 56.4.484-502.
Gives a fairly extensive list of French loans into the Stuart/Trembleur Lake dialect. Discusses the phonological motivation for certain aspects of the adaptation of these loans to Carrier.

Stewart, Ethel G. (1992)
The Dene and Na-Dene Migration, 1233 AD: Escape from Genghis Khan to America. Columbus, Georgia: Institute for the Study of American Cultures.
Stewart claims that Athabaskan and other "Na-Dene" speaking people were living in Central Asia when the Mongols conquered the Hsi Hsia empire in 1233. They became refugees and migrated eastward, crossed the Bering Strait, and entered North America. Her arguments are based partly on legends (e.g. the fact that some Dene legends mention large reptiles, which she thinks must be crocodiles, which they could only have known from Southeast Asia) but mostly on alleged linguistic similarities between Athabaskan languages and Asian languages. The linguistic evidence is entirely unconvincing to a linguist. The data are full of errors; the alleged correspondances are entirely unsystematic. For example, she claims that the Takuli (Dakelh/Carrier) are the men of the Li clan of the city of Tagu. In fact, Takuli is a nineteenth century garbling of the word dakelh, which bears little resemblance to taguli and which can be analyzed as containing the verb stem kelh "go by boat". There is no direct evidence of such a migration taking place, and considerable evidence that Athabaskan people were in North America long before 1233. We reproduce here the passages of the book referring directly to Dakelh. The reference to "Professor Fell" is to the claim in Fell (1977/1992), Fell (1979), and Fell (1983) that Dakelh is not related to the Athabaskan languages but is related to the Celtic languages. The reference to Father Morice is incorrect. Father Morice was well aware that Dakelh is an Athabaskan language and did not propose any connection with Celtic.
"There is every reason to believe that the ancestors of the Carrier of Central British Columbia were men of the Li clan of the great mart of Ta-gu, or Ta-ku, who were engaged in the transport business of the Silk Road. If Father Morice and Professor Fell are correct, the Carrier dialect has a strong Celtic strain. This means that their dialect is related to the Tokharian B of the northern Tarim Oases. The ancient kingdom of Koutcha, to the north of Ta-gu, has been described as a forgotten Italo-Celtic Oasis in the middle of the Gobi. European scholars have suggested that the Italo-Celtic affinities in the dialect of the Northern Tarim Oases of Koutcha and Turfan were brought to the Far East from Europe by Celts who trekked to the Chinese border and joined the Yueh-che, their route north of the T'ien-shan being marked by their grave mounds. The question of an input from Celtic dialects of Celts who reached America via the Atlantic must be left to scholars who trace the movements of American "Indian" populations. The Carrier call themselves Takkuli, which has been transcribed from sound. In the Tokharian dialects of the Tarim, g was heard as k, and Ta-gu, as Ta-ku. Li is a Tarim clan name, listed in documents of the Tibetan period. Father Morice considered the Carriere to be closely related to the Navaho and the Apache. But, if they spoke a Celtic dialect, they were more closely related ethnically, if not culturally, to the people of the Northern Tarim. After more that 700 years in the new land, the Carrier had no recollection of the organization of a Tarim trade mart and still less of the reason for their nickname, Carrier." [p.245]
"Takkuli, transcribed from sound, has the Tokharian k instead of g, in the second syllable - Ta-gu-li. Ta-Ku-Li is the Tokharian form of Ta-gu. It is followed by the clan name, Li, which was common in the Tarim and listed at Sa-cu in the Tibetan period. This is a Tarim style name in which the clan name is preceded by that of the town of origin. It means that this tribe was of the Li clan of Ta-gu. Their alternative name, Carrier, means that they were in the transport business of the Silk Road, that is, the Li clan of Ta-gu were men of the caravans. Long before European times the Carrier had forgotten the meaning of their names - no longer remembered that they were descended from the old population of the Tarim who spoke an Italo-Celtic dialect." [p.455]

Story, Gillian L. (1984a)
Babine and Carrier Phonology: A Historically Oriented Study. Arlington, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
A discussion of the derivation of the sound systems of Babine and Carrier from Proto-Athabaskan, with particular attention to Babine. Story's conclusions form an important part of the evidence for the treatment of Babine-Witsuwit'en and Carrier as distinct languages.

Story, Gillian L. (1984b)
``Investigation of Central Carrier Pitch Phenomena --- A Discussion of the Findings,'' ms. Rae, Northwest Territories.
An early version of Story's analysis of tonal phenomena in the Stuart/Trembleur Lake dialect.

Story, Gillian L. (1989)
``A Report on the Nature of Carrier Pitch Phenomena: With Special Reference to the Verb Prefix Tonomechanics,'' in Eung-Do Cook and Keren D. Rice (eds.) Athapaskan Linguistics: Current Perspectives on a Language Family. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 99-144.
A detailed discussion of tone in the Stuart/Trembleur Lake dialect, with particular emphasis on its relationship to the verbal morphology.

Walker, Richard (1968)
``Dialect Survey of Carrier and Chilcotin - Athapaskan,'' ms. Summer Institute of Linguistics, Eastlake, Colorado.
A comparison, almost entirely lexical, of Stuart Lake Carrier, Ulkatcho Carrier, and Chilcotin, with a computation of lexicostatistical distance.

Walker, Richard (1974)
``Grammar Sketch,'' in Antoine, Francesca, Bird, Catherine, Isaac, Agnes, Prince, Nellie, Sam, Sally, Walker, Richard, and David B. Wilkinson Central Carrier Bilingual Dictionary. Fort Saint James, British Columbia: Carrier Linguistic Committee.
A brief sketch of aspects of the grammar of the Stuart/Trembleur Lake dialect, primarily of verb conjugation.

Walker, Richard (1979)
``Central Carrier Phonemics,'' in Eric P. Hamp et al. (eds.) Contributions to Canadian Linguistics. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. pp.93-107.
A description of the phonemic contrasts and allophonic rules of the Nak'azdli (Fort Saint James) dialect.

Walker, Shirley (1974)
``Kinship,'' in Antoine, Francesca, Bird, Catherine, Isaac, Agnes, Prince, Nellie, Sam, Sally, Walker, Richard, and David B. Wilkinson Central Carrier Bilingual Dictionary. Fort Saint James, British Columbia: Carrier Linguistic Committee.
A brief exposition of the kinship system of the Stuart/Trembleur lake dialect.

Young, Robert (1939)
Unpublished field notes.
Extensive field notes, especially verb paradigms, collected from John Prince, son of Louis-Billy Prince, by a linguist well acquainted with Navajo. Young accompanied the famous John Peabody Harrington on a tour of Canadian Athabaskan languages that included this three week December stint in Fort Saint James. Written in a Navajo-based writing system. A copy of these notes is on deposit in the YDLI archives.