Bibliography of Materials on
Language Maintenance
Anonby, Stan J. (1997)
Reversing Language Shift: Can Kwak'wala be Revived? Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of North Dakota. Available for reading or download as a Portable Document Format file.
Although focussed on Kwak'wala, contains a valuable general discussion of the circumstances under which language revival is possible.

Brandt, Elizabeth A. and Vivian A. Youngman (1989)
``Language renewal and language maintenance: a practical guide,'' Canadian Journal of Native Education 16.2.42-77.

An excellant discussion of issues in language maintenance and revitalization, with detailed practical suggestions. It is surprising and unfortunate that this article is not more widely known.

Dauenhauer, Nora Marks and Richard Dauenhauer (1998)
``Technical, emotional and ideological issues in reversing language shift: examples from Southeast Alaska,'' in Grenoble, Lenore A. and Lindsay J. Whaley (eds.) Endangered Languages: current issues and future prospects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 57-98.
A discussion by a Tlingit woman and her husband, both of whom have worked on Tlingit language issues for many years, of the many factors that stand in the way of successful language maintenance. An important paper that says things that even people who are aware of them are often unwilling to say publicly.

Dorian, Nancy C. (editor) (1989)
Investigating Obsolescence: Studies in Language Contraction and Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
A collection of papers on various aspects of language death, ranging from the social circumstances in which a language declines to the ways in which the language itself changes when it is on its last legs.

Douglas, E. Te Kohu (1992)
"Maori Language Nests (Kohanga Reo) - Their Impact on New Zealand Communities," Journal of Indigenous Studies 3.1.13-31.

Fishman, Joshua A. (1991)
Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
This is the most important theoretical study of language maintenance and revival. On the basis of a detailed analysis of a variety of threatened languages and attempts at maintenance and revival, Fishman explains the factors that affect language survival and provides valuable advice.

Fishman, Joshua (1997)
``Maintaining Languages: What Works? What Doesn't?'' in Cantoni, Gina (ed.) (1997) Stabilizing Indigenous Languages Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University, Center for Excellence in Education. pp. 186-198.

Fishman, Joshua A. (ed.)
Can threatened languages be saved? Toronto: Multilingual Matters. 2001. ISBN 1-85359-493-8 (paperback). ISBN 1-85359-492-X (hardcover).
A collection of 19 papers on reversing language shift dealing with languages around the world. Many of the papers discuss developments since the publication of Fishman (1991) and/or make use of the theoretical framework developed there.

Fleras, A. (1989)
``Te Kohanga Reo: A Maori renewal program in New Zealand,'' Canadian Journal of Native Education 16.2.78-85.

Hinton, Leanne (1994)
Flutes of Fire. Berkeley, California: Heyday Books.

A collection of essays on the native languages of California, including several dealing with language maintenance and revival efforts.

Huss, Leena, Antoinette Camilleri Grima, and Kendall A. King (eds.) (2003)
Transcending Monolingualism: Linguistic Revitalisation in Education. Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger.
A collection of papers on the role of education in linguistic revitalization, with emphasis on minority languages of Europe.

Reyhner, John (ed.) (1997)
Teaching Indigenous Languages. Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University, Center for Excellence in Education.

A selection of papers presented at the Fourth Annual Stabilizing Indigenous Languages Symposium.

Rigsby, Bruce J. (1987)
"Indigenous Language Shift and Maintenance in Fourth World Settings," Multilingua 6.4.359-378.

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