The D-Effect - Nak'albun/Dzinghubun Dialect

There are two situations in which a /d/ comes to be adjacent to the initial consonant of the verb base, namely:

  1. When the subject is the first person dual /id/;
  2. When the valence prefix is /d/.

The resulting consonant clusters are treated differently from comparable clusters elsewhere in the verb. The rules governing these clusters are known as the D-Effect.

The following chart illustrates the cases in which /d/ is realized in some way. In all other cases, the /d/ disappears without a trace.

The effect is illustrated here with first person dual verb forms. The /d/ valence prefix behaves identically. The third person singular of the same verb is given by way of contrast, to illustrate the verb base.

C2 Result 1d 3s Gloss
ghgigohughohstring (snowshoes)
l (_V)dlnidlatnulatfloat around
ntnhootnihwhunihbe awake
wgwigwusuwusbe ticklish
zdznidzootnuzootskate around

The condition in the case of /l/ is that it be followed immediately by a vowel, that is, that it be the initial consonant of the verb stem. Where the /l/ is the valence prefix it will necessarily be followed by the initial consonant of the stem. In this case, the /d/ is invariably deleted without a trace. For example, the 3s of ``run around'' is nulgaih, with /l/-valence. The 1d is nilgaih. Here the /d/ of the 1d subject prefix /id/ disappears.